Training

Cryogenic engineering is sometimes perceived as inaccessible.  With twenty years experience in the cryogenic industry we can provide a general introduction to the technologies or targeted practical and theoretical teaching in very specific areas.  The material can be prepared specifically for the audience or take any of the standard modules which are described below.

PROPERTIES OF CRYOGENIC FLUIDS
The properties and the costs of the cryogens helium and nitrogen are compared.  Understanding the differences and the economics provides insights into the different design principles used in the cryostat design or closed loop cryogenic systems.

OPERATION OF HELIUM LIQUEFIERS AT 4 K
The concepts of the liquefaction cycle are presented to explain how high pressure helium at ambient pressure is converted into liquid helium at 4 K.  Understanding that approximately 1 kW of electrical power is required to produce 1 W of cooling at 4 K illustrates the sensitivity to external effects which can disrupt the process.

CRYOSTAT DESIGN DOWN TO 2.2 K
The cryostat used to contain the superconducting magnet or cryogenic experiment gives up very few secrets from an external examination.  Even the engineering drawings appear like a “Russian doll” construction of concentric layers.  This module will help explain the design of a cryostat in qualitative terms or specific design figures.  The cryogen boil-off can be quantified from the heat loads due to conduction and radiation and the techniques used by cryogenic designers to reduce these heat loads are presented.

CRYOGEN PIPELINES FOR LIQUID HELIUM AND LIQUID NITROGEN
Despite the low temperatures of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen, it is possible to convey these cryogens in vacuum insulated pipelines over hundreds of metres and even kilometres with acceptable losses.  The principles of construction are described so that the heat loads are acceptable and the methods of sizing the pipelines and valves are explained.

CRYOGENIC HEAT TRANSFER
The analytical methods to design cryogenic heat exchangers using nitrogen or helium are presented.  The initial objection to using liquid nitrogen to cool fluids is the problem of freezing which will block the heat exchanger.  The solutions to this problem, and others, in the design of heat exchangers.

LIQUID NITROGEN COOLED POLLUTION ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Pollution control by cryogenic condensation relies on condensing and even freezing the pollutants from a gas stream.  The cooling is provided by liquid nitrogen undergoing the reverse process of boiling and warming to ambient temperature.  The complex changes can be explained in qualitative terms or numerical methods which are used to design heat exchangers.  The requirements of equipment to meet the current pollution legislation is also explained in practical terms.

PROCESS COOLING
The techniques to provide process cooling by liquid nitrogen vary from direct liquid nitrogen injection to indirect cooling using heat exchangers.  The special requirements of liquid nitrogen heat exchangers and the process control for efficient use of nitrogen are explained.

CLIENT LIST

Companies that have used Monroe Brothers Ltd for training include:

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington State, USA
(Operation of 900 MHz NMR superconducting magnet at 2.2 K)
Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire, UK
(Superconducting RF cavities operating in a closed loop liquid helium cooling system)
Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire, UK
(Superconducting wiggler magnets operating in a closed loop liquid helium cooling system)
GlaxoSmithKline, Tonbridge, UK (on behalf of Air Products PLC)
(Operatrion of a liquid nitrogen cooled reaction cooling system)
Air Products PLC, Basingstoke, UK
(Liquid nitrogen cooled pollution abatement systems)
Sapio Srl, Monza, Italy
(Liquid nitrogen cooled pollution abatement systems)

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